The article contains the information on the environmental situation in the Chelyabinsk region and Chelyabinsk city. We analyzed health status and physical development of 7–8-year-old children residing in different districts of the industrial megapolis. In general, the anthropometric parameters of the children examined were within the accepted normal values. The growth of the body length, body mass, chest circumference, and the parameters of hand-held dynamometry suggest successful adaptation of children to learning in school. Children living in the Metallurgical and Central districts of Chelyabinsk city were found to have the poorest health status on the stage of adaptation to learning in the school.