All Posts in Category: Medical Herald №025-2017

The features of the nervous system stability to physical loads in young skiers with vagotonic type nervous system

We performed experimental evaluation of the autonomic nervous system stability in skiers with vagotonic type nervous system under various training loads. We found that mixed physical activity facilitate adaptive rearrangements that also depend on the autonomic nervous system stability. This analysis will allow to increase the quality of training of young athletes.

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The impact of physical and psychoemotional load on the physiological and hormonal status of german shepherds

In this article, we present the data on age-related changes in the concentration of protein and steroid hormones in
German Shepherds depending on their physical and psychoemotional loads. We found that young animals (aged between
one and three years) had increased body temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate during training. After a fiveminute
rest, 1-year-old dogs demonstrated increased pulse rate of 135,56 ± 2.50 BPM (which is 20.17 % above the
norm), respiration rate of 175.46 ± 2.51 breaths per minute (which is 80.85% above the norm), and body temperature of
40.02 ± 0.52 °C (which is 5% higher than that at rest). These parameters reach the baseline along with increasing of the
rest time. A sixty-minute rest after training is insufficient to restore the physiological parameters in 1-year-old and 3-
year-old dogs. In the case of adult dogs (aged 5-8 years), a sixty-minute rest after training ensures complete restoration
of the general physiological parameters.
The process of recovery is characterized by quantitative changes in the level of hormones, including thyroxine, triiodothyronine,
cortisol, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. These changes depend on the physical and psychoemotional
load, as well as the age of the dogs. We found that the level of thyrotropin-releasing hormone increases with age and
comprises 1.153 ± 0.086 mIU/L in the 1-year-old dogs and 1.471 ± 0.131 mIU/L in the 8-year-old dogs, whereas the
physical and psychoemotional load do not have a significant impact on the level of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The
level of thyroxin increases with dogs’ age. Within our study, its concentration at rest was 27.32 ± 1.23 nmol/l in the 1-
year-old dogs and 18.15 ± 0.45 nmol/l in the 8-year-old dogs. The level of thyroxin elevates during the training, which
appears to be associated with a large expenditure of energy. The concentration of thyroxin reached 34.70 ± 1.34 nmol/l
in the 1-year-old dogs after a five-minute rest, while the 8-year-old dogs had significantly lower levels of thyroxin that
comprised 22.32 ± 0.38 nmol/l. A 24-hour rest after physical and psychoemotional load is sufficient to reduce the concentration
of thyroxine to its baseline. The highest concentration of cortisol was observed in the 1-year-old and 3-yearold
dogs, while the lowest concentration was found in the 8-year-old dogs. The level of cortisol decreased with age and
was 278.30 ± 15.30 nmol/l and 184.60 ± 8.75 nmol/l among the 1-year-old dogs and 8-year-old dogs respectively. The
concentration of cortisol substantially increases during training: up to 333.91±19.50 nmol/l in the 1-year-old dogs and
217.83 ± 6.20 nmol/l in the 8-year-old dogs. A 24-hour rest after training is insufficient for restoration of cortisol levels
in the 1-year-old dogs, while in the 8-year-old dogs it comes back to the baseline within 24 hours.
In conclusion, we should stress that the overall physiological parameters of service dogs and their hormonal status
changes with age and depends on the physical and psychoemotional load. A 24-hour rest is insufficient for full restoration
of physical condition of young dogs, while for adult dogs this period of rest is sufficient for restoration of their
physiological condition, the dogs, therefore, may perform their duties.

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The issues related to the organization of medical rehabilitation for patients with dorsopathies

The study conducted in the Clinic of Vertebral Neurology allows to establish the relationship between the diagnostics, remedial measures, time of disability, and the problems of stimulation and aggravation in patients with dorsopathies. Addressing the problems associated with diagnosis and treatment in vertebral neurology will satisfy both medical and economical demands of the patients, physicians, experts from the Fund of Social Insurance, employers, and hospitals.

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The need for implementation of the internal quality control in the state forensic expert institutions (sfei)

The conclusion of an expert is a type of evidences, and sometimes it is the only evidence that helps to prove the nature of a crime and to determine the degree of responsibility. Therefore, expert errors may cause uncorrectable or hardly correctable miscarriages of justice. The use of international experience of quality management (QM) in the field of forensic medical examination can potentially help to control the working process and improve the quality of examinations in forensic medicine (FM).

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Socio-demographic portrait of a russian surgeon

The article contains the result of the analysis of currently available publications devoted to the evaluation of quantitative, age, and gender parameters of the group of professional surgeons in our country. Surgeons were found to represent the second largest group of doctors after therapists. Mean age of the surgeons varies between 25 and 49 years, the majority of them are males. We revealed that social conditions and urban environment stipulate high labor intensity as well as sustainable competition among the professionals. Besides, this environment also determines individual strategies for professionalization in the studied group.

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The use of the special surgical instrument for the removal of intramedullary construction within the treatment of chronic posttraumatic osteomyelitis of the lower extremities

Currently accepted approaches to treatment of most of the diseases suggest multistage and comprehensive therapy. The osteomyelitis with a variety of its forms is not an exception. In addition to conventional methods used in surgical treatment of osteomyelitis, a surgeon often has to expand treatment measures depending on the disease form. Besides the sanitation of a purulent-necrotic lesion and filling a bone defect, a surgeon sometimes needs to remove foreign objects, such as intramedullary or extramedullary constructions. The removal of extramedullary constructions does not usually pose significant difficulties, whereas the construction inside a long tubular bone becomes a serious problem for a surgeon. The obstacles with their removal are usually related to the absence of special surgical instruments in the hospital. The use of conventional surgical instruments extends and complicates the surgery.

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Personality types and somatic dysfunction in elderly patients

We identified three personality types of elderly patients among the participants of the study. These types were associated
with different reaction to stress that induced somatic dysfunction, mainly coronary artery disease. In 60% of
individuals with the 1st psychotype stress was associated with high levels of catecholamines and glucocorticoids.
Among the patients with the 2nd psychotype, 95.4% did not demonstrate any increase in the level of hormones. In the
group of patients with the 3rd psychotype, 53.4% developed unfavourable reactions to stress, including long-term elevation
of hormone levels, frequent cases of myocardial infarction and arterial hypertension, failure of adaptation, anxiety,
and depression.

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Novel surgical method for creation of the vascular access for hemodialysis

Breakthrough Research Centre ‘Information technologies in medicine’, Federal State Budgetary Institution of Higher Education ‘Samara State Medical University’, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation The study was aimed to explore possible ways of improvement of a surgical method applied for creation of the vascular access for hemodialysis using the analysis of clinical data and computed hemodynamics

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Basic methodological principles of the emergency training at healthcare facilities

Objective: systematization of methodological approaches dedicated to improvement of the emergency training programs in a medical organization. Materials and methods. We analyzed the main regulatory documents that govern the activity of the head of a medical
organization considering the real conditions. Results. The article covers the issues of emergency training of healthcare specialists. We describe a set of recommended activities aimed at the development of practical skills in the staff in order to provide adequate work organization in a case of emergency.

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